A common periodontal pathogen may delay conception in young women, according to a study carried out at the University of Helsinki and published in the Journal of Oral Microbiology. Previous studies have shown that periodontal diseases may be a risk for general health, but no data on the influence of periodontal bacteria on conception or becoming pregnant have been available.
The study population comprised 256 healthy nonpregnant women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. Clinical oral and gynecological examinations were performed. Detection of major periodontal pathogens in saliva and analysis of serum and saliva antibodies against major periodontal pathogens as well as a vaginal swab for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis at baseline were carried out. Subjects were followed-up to establish whether they did or did not become pregnant during the observation period of 12 months.
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium associated with periodontal diseases, was significantly more frequently detected in the saliva among women who did not become pregnant during the one-year follow-up period than among those who did. The levels of salivary and serum antibodies against this pathogen were also significantly higher in women who did not become pregnant.
Statistical analysis showed that the finding was independent of other risk factors contributing to conception, such as age, current smoking, socioeconomic status, bacterial vaginosis, previous deliveries or clinical periodontal disease.
Women who had P. gingivalis in the saliva and higher saliva or serum antibody concentrations against this bacterium had a threefold hazard for not becoming pregnant compared to their counterparts. Increased hazard was nearly fourfold if more than one of these qualities and clinical signs of periodontitis were present.
“Our study does not answer the question on possible reasons for infertility, but it shows that periodontal bacteria may have a systemic effect even in lower amounts and even before clear clinical signs of gum disease can be seen,” said periodontist and researcher Susanna Paju, DDS, PhD, of the University of Helsinki. “More studies are needed to explain the mechanisms behind this association.”
Learn more about this study at the Journal of Oral Microbiology (2017); doi. org/10.1080/20002297.2017.1330644.
Published by CDA Journal, Vol 45, N°9. September 2017.